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“Why is it that we can’t let go of the vinyl record?”

Richard Osborne’s Vinyl: A History of the Analogue Record
Olivier Julien
p. 178-180
Référence(s) :

Richard Osborne, Vinyl: A History of the Analogue Record, Furham & Burlington (VT), Ashgate, 2013, 213 p. [ISBN 978-1-409-44027-7]

Texte intégral

1If one were to try to summarize Richard Osborne’s Vinyl: A History of the Analogue Record, we might describe it as an endeavour to discover what makes the vinyl disc record such a key medium in the determination of twentieth-century music by sound recording. As the author makes clear from the outset:

“Although vinyl lost its status as Britain’s leading albums format as long ago as 1985 and thus looked set for a permanent decline, sales of vinyl LPs rose year on year by 43.7 per cent in 2011. In the US the success of the format was better still […] And yet this wasn’t the first of vinyl’s revivals […] Why is it that we can’t let go of the vinyl record? This book is part of this phenomenon but it is also an attempt to explain it” (1-2).

To do so, Osborne uses what I think is a truly brilliant idea: he takes the features that define the vinyl disc as a sound reproduction, a sound storage or a distribution medium (the groove, the disc shape, the paper record label, etc.) and he uses them as so many points of entry into the history of recorded music.

2As an example, Chapter 1 (“The Groove”) focuses on the development of sound recording technologies. Osborne begins by mentioning early inventions such as Edouard-Léon Scott de Martinville’s 1856 Phonautograph, noting that such machines only aimed at representing sound visually. Then he observes that it was actually Edison’s “considering the mechanical reproduction, rather than the transcription, of visualized sound” (10) that led him to opt for grooved recording, before the groove itself began to influence music-making in the age of hip-hop DJing and turntablism. Similarly, Chapter 2 addresses an issue that has plagued many writers and researchers since Roland Gelatt’s seminal work on the history of the phonograph (1955): how did the disc become the dominant medium for recorded music despite its being what Dave Laing once called “the limited ‘playback’ variant over the cylinder that could also be used to record” (35-36)? Here, Osborne comes up with a rather surprising (though well-argued) answer: “Ultimately, the triumph of the disc over the cylinder was a capitalist ploy” (42).

3Amongst the remaining chapters, Chapter 3 approaches the vinyl record from the angle of its label and the evolution of the information featured on the latter piece of paper reflecting industry-related issues such as the changing relationships between artists and record companies, the development of so-called “label identity” (“the clearest outcome of labelling [lying] in the fact that the term ‘record label’ became a synonym for ‘record company,’” 45), not forgetting record companies’ strategies with regard to the development of particular markets and submarkets whose rise would eventually give birth to rock‘n’roll. The following chapter extends the issue by analyzing vinyl’s connections with the development of an industrial approach to “record production” (in all senses of the term), but it also uses that material as a pretext to get into more technical considerations in terms of sound reproduction. Chapter 5 then examines the development of the long-playing format (a format that was originally meant to accommodate for the needs of classical musicians, and that finally turned out to have a greater influence on popular music as some artists favouring it “helped the separate divisions of ‘pop’ and ‘rock’ to emerge,” 87), before Chapter 6 does the same with what was originally regarded as the LP’s popular music counterpart: the 45-rpm single. In Chapter 7, the B-side and the 12-inch single offer new perspectives on how the vinyl disc helped shape the history of popular music (even though they were originally developed to “[expand] the analogue single,” those formats eventually “fostered new forms of music” as artists began “creat[ing] “b-side material and mix[ing] 12’’ versions of their songs,” 143). Finally, Chapter 8 traces the evolution of the record sleeve and explores its altering the way in which records were perceived from the days of the Kraft paper sleeve to “the real fillip for record sleeve design [that] came with the introduction of the LP” (164). In this respect, it would be difficult to disagree with the comment that “[i]f there is an accepted golden era of LP sleeve design it is the period of the late 1960s to the mid 1970s. During this period the LP came to closest to being a stand-alone object, divorced from single releases and their attendant broadcast media” (174). To put it differently, the aforementioned fillip did not actually confine to record sleeve design: as the author seems to imply throughout the chapter’s pages, it also represented the final step towards the crowning of the vinyl disc as the ultimate artifact in the history of sound recording.

4By the end of the conclusion, Osborne recapitulates his three aims when he started the book: “to detail the history of the vinyl record; to outline the format’s relationship with music; and to account for vinyl’s continued popularity.” He also notes that, “in effect, these aims have merged” (186). And in fact they did as, by approaching one and the same object from such different yet interrelated angles, those eight chapters do help the reader develop a thorough understanding of how the vinyl disc came to embody the history of sound recording, the history of popular music or even that of the recording industry while shaping those histories at the same time. Given this clever and engaging formal scheme, and considering it helps organize an argument that is particularly well researched and documented while providing an overall pleasant and stimulating reading experience, I believe Osborne’s book to be one of the best recent contributions to what Amanda Bayley described, back in 2009, as “the increasingly diverse research currently being undertaken in the field of recorded music” (2009: 2). For these reasons, I am certain Vinyl: A History of the Analogue Record will soon feature prominently on many bookshelves, alongside such classics as Andre Millard’s America on Record (1995) or Mark Katz’s Capturing Sound (2004).

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Bibliographie

Bayley A. (2009), “Introduction,” in Amanda Bayley (ed.), Recorded Music: Performance, Culture and Technology, pp. 1-11. Cambridge, New York & Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Gelatt, R. (1955), The Fabulous Phonograph: From Tin Foil to High Fidelity. Philadelphia (PA): J.B. Lippincott Company.

Katz, M. (2004), Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music. Berkeley (CA), Los Angeles (CA) & London: University of California Press.

Millard, A. (1995), America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. Cambridge, New York & Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Olivier Julien, « “Why is it that we can’t let go of the vinyl record?” », Volume !, 11 : 2 | 2015, 178-180.

Référence électronique

Olivier Julien, « “Why is it that we can’t let go of the vinyl record?” », Volume ! [En ligne], 11 : 2 | 2015, mis en ligne le 15 juin 2015, consulté le 22 novembre 2017. URL : http://volume.revues.org/4300

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Auteur

Olivier Julien

Olivier Julien enseigne l’histoire et la musicologie des musiques populaires à l’Université Paris-Sorbonne (Paris IV). Dans les années 1990, il a travaillé comme auteur de chansons et comme chroniqueur musical tout en poursuivant des études de musique et de musicologie. Il a soutenu une thèse de doctorat sur le son Beatles en 1999 et contribué depuis à plusieurs publications spécialisées en France et à l’étranger. Traducteur anglais-français pour la Cité de la musique de Paris, la Salle Pleyel et l’Ensemble Intercontemporain, rapporteur pour les revues Popular Music (Cambridge University Press) et Musurgia (ESKA), représentant de la branche francophone d’Europe de l’International Association for the Study of Popular Music au Conseil éditorial de l’IASPM@Journal et expert pour la Commission « Arts » du CNL (Centre National du Livre), le FnRS (Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique belge) et le FQRSC (Fonds Québécois de la Recherche sur la Société et la Culture), il a dirigé l’ouvrage collectif international Sgt. Pepper and the Beatles : It Was Forty Years Ago Today (ARSC Award for Best Research in Recorded Rock and Popular Music 2009). Ses recherches portent principalement sur le rapport des musiciens populaires à la technologie et sur le conditionnement des musiques populaires, en tant que tradition, par la phonographie.
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